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What Is ISO and How to Use It in 4 Simple Steps

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Related course: Photography for Beginners

ISO is one of three factors which determine the exposure of a photo. The other two are aperture and shutter speed. But what is ISO exactly?

Read this post to gain a more in-depth knowledge of what ISO is, how to use it and how to start taking more professional photos.

A Canon A1 35mm film camera showing ASA instead of ISO

Section 1 – What Is ISO in Photography? What is ISO on a camera?

The name stands for International Organization for Standardization. The International Standards Organisation is a body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. They formed in 1947 and has it’s headquarters in Geneva, Switerzland.

I know this doesn’t offer much help. We need to look back at photographic history a little bit first.

Where Did ISO Come From?

Ever since the photographic emulsion was developed, different countries tried to enforce standards. This is so they knew what photographers could do with the film. These classifications are now known as film speed.
There were many different groups of people who tried to come up with a method that classified their film in the best way. This is the early process of trying to work out what we now call film speed.

  • Hurter and Driffield – These two worked on emulsion sensitivity since 1890. It was the standard until 1928. Their system had an inverse system of classification and exposure. The higher the number, the lower the exposure the emulsion needed.
  • GOST – From 1928 the Soviet Union used this as their standard until 1951. They then replaced it with the GOST system, which was the Eastern version of ASA.
  • DIN – Deutsches Institut für Normung was introduced in 1934. They used degrees for classification. A 3° change would either double or halve the sensitivity.
  • ASA – American Standards Association started in 1943. A linear scale showed that 400 ASA is twice as fast as 200 ASA, and 100 ASA is half as fast as 200 ASA. They left these film classifications in 1988 when they adopted the ISO photography standard.
  • ISO – By combining DIN and ASA, they used an arithmetic and a logarithmic scale. Its arithmetic scale corresponds to the arithmetic ASA system. A doubling of the film sensitivity is represented by a doubling of the numerical film speed value.

A roll of Kodak professional film - ISO in photography

What Does It Mean?

So, as we saw, ISO is a way to classify your film speed and how sensitive to light the film is. Low ISO numbers mean low light sensitivity. They need a lot of light to expose correctly. High ISO numbers have high light sensitivity, meaning they need less light for exposures.

They are in the range of 50, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600 and 3200. There are other films that are outside this range, but they are more specialized.

These increments seem a little strange. But what you will notice is that the numbers are either doubled or halved. This is because moving your ISO setting from ISO 100 to ISO 200 halves the light sensitivity of the film. Moving from ISO 200 to ISO 100 doubles it.

In the world of digital cameras, the same numbers continue to be used. The only differences are that we use digital sensors, not photographic film. And ISOs on DSLRs tend to go way above ISO 3200.

There are also added increments in the above range. 1/3 stops would be found between ISO 400 and 800, for example.

The numbers are recognizable. Lower ISO numbers mean less noise is present meaning higher quality. Higher ISO numbers come with other settings, such as fast shutter speeds. There is a trade-off between the quality of the images and using other necessary settings.

These settings work across all camera platforms, Nikon and Canon

A list of different ISO photography settings and the conditions to use them in

Is ISO Part of Exposure?

The ISO of your photography depends on many factors. It comes down to how much light is available, and what you want to capture. We tend to try and shoot with a low ISO on our camera as that gives us the best quality and a smaller amount of noise/grain.

The ISO is a little complicated than the sensitivity the film or sensor is to light. Its just a number that correlates with how much light you find in your scene.

What you are capturing determines the value you should use. If you’re photographing outside in the middle of summer, you should use ISO 100 due to the abundance of light. But if you’re photographing inside, this value might jump to ISO 800, or even higher.

One of the best ways to explain the use of ISO in digital photography is by using the exposure triangle. This triangle helps you to capture the perfect exposure.

Using the three interchangeable areas that control light, you can photograph anything, anywhere.

A diagram showing the exposure triangle - iso, shutter speed and aperture
For example, photographing a scene with ISO 400 at f/16 and a shutter speed of 1/400 and then wanting to create a smaller depth of field. You would first lower your aperture to f/8 (two stops).

To keep the same correct exposure, you would have to decrease either the ISO 2-stops or increase the shutter speed by 2-stops. Decreasing its value from 400 to 100 would give you better quality.

If you choose Av (Aperture Priority) or Tv (Shutter Priority) shooting modes, the ISO will change automatically.

Is Raising ISO Just Like Brightening Your Photo on a Computer?

Yes and no, but we are looking at different thinks here. The ISO can raise or lower on your camera as you capture the scene. Every raise upwards (100 – 200 ISO) means you need double the amount of light. A move downwards (400 to 200) means you halve the light needed.

When you step away from your camera, and place the image on your computer, you don’t raise the ISO. You can’t. Editing software such as Adobe Lightroom will allow you to raise the Exposure.

The slider increases in points where +1 would be one stop of light. It has the same effect as raising your ISO from 100-200. We don’t want to use the word ‘Brightness’ for exposure as they mean slightly different things.

Exposure places a heavier bias on highlights, where as brightness affects the tones across the entire scene without bias.

A close up of a DSLR camera showing the ISO value - what is iso

Section 2 – How Does ISO Affect Exposure?

The camera’s ISO scale is similar to shutter speed in the sense that, when doubled, the exposure is also doubled. They are proportional to one another. A low ISO number will give a low exposure and a high ISO will give a high exposure. It’s much simpler then aperture.

This is much easier to demonstrate using actual photos as you can see in the slideshow below…

The photos are displayed in the following order: 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200. The aperture and shutter speed remain constant throughout these photos. Only the ISO is changing so that you can see its effect on a photo.

The ideal exposure is shown in the fourth photo which was taken at ISO 800.

Photo of a pink flower in low light - demonstrating ideal exposure and ISO
Photo of a pink flower in low light - demonstrating ideal exposure taken at ISO 200.
Photo of a pink flower in low light - demonstrating ideal exposure taken at ISO 400.
Photo of a pink flower in low light - demonstrating ideal exposure taken at ISO 800.
Photo of a pink flower in low light - demonstrating ideal exposure taken at ISO 1600.
Photo of a pink flower in low light - demonstrating ideal exposure taken at ISO 3200.
As you may have noticed by now, nothing affects the exposure in one single way. There are consequences to using different ISO values.

Section 3 – How Does ISO Affect the Quality of Photos? or How Does ISO Affect a Photo?

As a general rule, the lower the number, the better the quality of the photo. By doubling the ISO in-camera settings, you’re doubling the exposure taken, and in turn, doubling the digital noise.

This noise reduces the detail of a photo by making the image appear grainy and uneven.

Sometimes you cant get away from it. Photographing a bad in a poor lit basement means you need to use an ISO of 3200 or more. You can use ISO 100, but then you need to collect the light through another setting.

Lets look at an example. Lets say you are photographing a band, and your settings are:

  • Aperture ƒ/4.0
  • Shutter Speed 1/125s
  • ISO 6400

If you want to bring your ISO down from 6400 to 100 (6400->3200->1600->800->400->200->100). That is a decrease of 6 stops of light. The light decreases be half 6 times. For the same exposure, you need to reduce the aperture or shutter speed. But you might not be able to reduce your aperture and make it wider.

So shutter speed. To add six times more light with the shutter speed, you need to extend it six times. This means going from 1/125th of a second to 1/2 second (1/60->1/30->1/15->1/8->1/4->1/2->).

In half a second, you will capture motion blur, meaning the musicians move around that you cant see who they are. Creative effect, but, not good for event or live music photography.

Lower number = Lower sensitivity = Finer quality photos

To best show how camera ISO affects the image quality, I took another series of photos and displayed them below.

For this experiment, I changed the shutter speed and aperture of each photo rather than changing the ISO.

This is to give even exposure making it easier to compare the difference in quality.

The photos have ISO in the following order: 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200.

A close up image of ran ban sunglasses taken with 100 ISO
A close up image of ran ban sunglasses taken with 200 ISO
A close up image of ran ban sunglasses taken with ISO 400 - what is ISO?
A close up image of ran ban sunglasses taken with ISO 800 - what is ISO?
A close up image of ran ban sunglasses taken with ISO 1600 - what is ISO?
A close up image of ran ban sunglasses taken with ISO 3200 - what is ISO?
As you can see, the higher the number, the stronger the noise becomes. There is noise reduction software that can help to correct this. But you’ll find that this only “smooths out” the noise.

This can result in an airbrushed effect on faces. It reduces the detail in a photo as shown below (cropped to 1% of actual image).

It has its uses but in moderation and with consideration as to what you’re using the photo for.

diptych close up portrait of a man with glasses - ISO Noise reduction comparison 600
Cameras with larger image sensors handle noise better as they allow more amount of light into the photo. As technology improves, however, the difference between camera sensor size and noise is reducing. What used to be a big problem is much less of a one now in high-quality cameras.

All cameras are different. Take yours into low light conditions to discover the maximum ISO you should be using.

Enhancing the exposure in Lightroom or post-production has the same effect as increasing your ISO. Make sure you get the exposure right in the camera first time round in order to avoid this.

Section 4 – Which ISO and When?

1. ISO 100-200: Your photos will have the most detail and the best quality. This is great for shooting in daylight because there is no need to boost the ISO any higher. Shooting at 1600 in bright conditions would be a waste. It will result in otherwise avoidable grain.

An outdoor portrait of a female model taken with ISO 100-200
2. ISO 200-400: For darker conditions, such as in the shade or indoors where it is brightly lit.

A portrait of a couple kissing while sitting on a stairway, taken with ISO 200-400
3. ISO 400-800: I like to use this range when shooting with a flash indoors. It helps to produce a more even exposure with a detailed background.

A low light atmospheric portrait of a female model taken with ISO 400-800
4. ISO 800-1600: Event photographers have no choice but to use this range. Live events often happen in low light conditions where you’re not allowed to use flash.

A low angle shot of a performer onstage , taken with ISO 800-1600
5. ISO 1600-3200: Again, event photographers will use this range for live gigs. You can also use it in extreme low light conditions where using a tripod is not an option. ISO 3200 is the highest I tend to push my camera to because I’m not a fan of digital noise (grain).

A night street photography shot of a red bus with artistic motion blur, taken with ISO 1600-3200

6. ISO 3200+: This range is reserved for extra low light conditions and artistic effect. With most cameras, it’s impossible to avoid a grainy result in this range.

A grainy black and white street photography shot taken with ISO 3200+What is the Best ISO Setting for Low-Light?

The best setting for low light depends on you camera. The more modern the camera and more high end, chances are it does better in low light situations.

Modern DSLRs can extend their ISO way beyond their native range. The Canon 5D Mark IV has an expandable ISO that reaches 102.400. You wont want to print from it, but it helps you in a pinch.

Other cameras work much better in low light conditions, as that is a main feature. So a decade old DSLR might need an ISO reach of 6400, where as newer ones might get away with 3200 or lower for the same situation.

The best thing to do is set your ISO last. Set your aperture to 2-stops from its widest position. For a f/2 lens, this would be f/3.5. Set your shutter speed to larger than your focal length. If using a 50 mm lens, use 1/60th of a second minimum.

This should give you an ISO of 1600 or there about. Having your aperture two stops from its widest gives you a slightly bigger focal area, while allowing you to move it to gain access to more light. You can double the light twice before having to move your ISO.

What is the Best ISO Setting for Landscape Photography?

The best ISO for landscape photography is always 100 ISO. As most landscapes are captured outside in well lit conditions, there isn’t a reason you cant use the lowest ISO setting.

Using a tripod and a wide angle lens, which are both common landscape photography gear items, you can keep your shutter speed as low as you want.

By following the Sunny 16 rule, you can use ISO 100 with an aperture of f/16 and a shutter speed of 1/125.

As landscape images are more likely to be printed large, the detail and resolution is more important than, lets say, an event.

And here’s a handy video you should watch before you go.

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46 comments
  1. This is definitely good to help people learn. I found that with newer cameras, i.e. D7000 and 7D, it is possible to get usable photos using ISO 6400, just takes a but of “Lightroom” touching up, if ya know what I mean 😀

  2. Thank you for explaining this so clearly.
    It’s not the first time I read stuff concerning ISO but shortly I forgot and when I get my camera I’m still confused about what to use.
    Now I have a much better idea !

  3. I often tell people to learn ISO first…before Aperture and Shutter speed…It is so often overlooked and setting between 200 and 800 can make or break a picture

  4. I found this article to be well written. The only additional information I would give would be considered for the “expert only”:
    Depending on lighting situations you will be able to get better Dynamic Range (More information in the very dark AND very light areas of the photo) using specific ISO’s. LowerISO’s are not as sensitive to allow for this in certain lighting conditions, and the inversely for the higher ISO’s.
    The other small tidbit of information I could offer is to not assume that Film ISO and digital ISO will react the same. Even between manufacturers of digital cameras the ISO’s are not a match up. If you are upgrading be prepared for a learning curve.
    The “rules of thumb” above are probably the easiest to keep in mind until you better know how your specific camera responds in any given situation.

  5. Thank you for making it easier to understand the ISO concept. I’m still experimenting with all three, ISO, F-stop and the shutter speed.

  6. A really good article. I used a Canon 5D and could only push it to ISO 800 for decent quality. 100 is my favorite for clarity. I just got the Canon 5D Mark ll and will experiment with the ISOs.

  7. One question – you mention that for indoor shots you like ISO 400 – 800 as it gives a more even exposure with detailed backround. When else is it a good idea to bump up the ISO even if you don’t need it.
    Night shot – you’ve got a tripod so shutter speed is not a problem (taking a phto of a still landscape). Would you set it on anything but ISO 100?
    Cloudy day – ISO 100 is possible but would you increase it?
    I’ve got into the habit of having ISO set on the minimum possible with still acceptable shutter speed and aperture for the situation – I realise now this is probably wrong. Auto ISO is an option on my camera. Would you recommend it?
    Love the website. Would love to buy you a pint one day!!!!

    1. I’d never use auto ISO myself, it’s a bit too unpredictable for me. Always use as low as you can, but there are reasons where you might want to increase it. At night, I might want a higher ISO, even if i’m using a tripod as it would allow me to capture the image as a faster shutter speed, which I may want if i’m looking to avoid movement. – Josh

      1. I tried the opposite of that. Having the ISO at 100, I had the camera on a tripod with the shutter speed at 10 seconds. I also used a remote to start the shot and my picture ended up awesome with absolute no grain. You only need the higher sensitivity if you can’t use a slow shutter speed. Since you were using a tripod, you didn’t have to worry.

      2. My argument was that there may still be movement that I wanted to freeze/capture. Babbling brooks, moving cars, grains blowing in the wind, etc.

  8. Thanks for the great info. I have always used ISO 100 when I use my flash. I am going to experiment with ISO with my flash. Thanks!

  9. Great website, very informative. My question involves the ISO settings on the flower pictures. It appears to be daylight, why are the flowers so dark at ISO 100, 200 & 400. This has me a little perplexed. Am I missing something ??

    1. “The aperture and shutter speed remains constant throughout these photos with only the ISO changing so that you can clearly see its effect on a photo. The ideal exposure is shown in the fourth photo, which was taken at ISO 800.”

  10. ISO has nothing to do with exposure in digital cameras. It adds analog gain to the image after exposure similar to the way raising brightness in Photoshop works. Brightness and exposure are not the same thing.

  11. Josh, ISO doesn’t mean “International Standards Organisation” (with an ‘s’ in English btw) at all. If you go on their website they’ll even explain that in details that the etymology derives from the Greek word ‘ISOS’ which means ‘equal to’ and it’s plain wrong to pronounce it I.S.O. (as an acronym). It must be pronounced in one go as a word. (Actually the correct pronunciation should be ESO with an ‘E’ sound and not an ‘I’ sound). All the rest, good job.

    1. INtervengo,
      I am sorry to inform you but Josh is correct on defining ISO “EYE-so” It the standard that replaced ASA which Stood for American Standards Association. Which some older Photographers still refer to when referring to ISO.

      1. Hi John, I’m sorry to inform you that you’re in error. Even American photographer Tony Northrup has pointed this out in one of his well informed videos. Tony aside, please go to the ISO’s website and look up the ethimology for yourself and meaning of ISO (when c in this case isn’t an acronym). You’ll find it explained by the I.S.O. association on their website. In addition, as we are not expected to pronounce Nev York (but New York), ISO being a Greek word (ISOS or equal to ASA if n this case), it should be pronounced with an E sound. And since I’m at it so it should the brand Nikon (with an E sound and NOT an ‘i’ sound ) which in the States is pronounced incorrectly 11 times out of 10. The rest of Australia, UK and the very same Japanese (who make it) pronounce it correctly with an E sound. Regards. INetrvengo.

      2. 11 times out of 10? And Nikon IS pronounced ‘I’ not E – that is the standard Western pronunciation.
        – Former Nikon Dealer / Assistant to the President of IAPEP (International Association of Professional Event Photographers)

      3. I don’t truly care how Nikon is pronounced in the USA. Bottom line you guys mispronounce it, get over it. As well as the word ‘via’ you guys pronounce it correctly (with an E sound as it should be in Latin) and the Brits mispronounce it (or better they used to pronounce it correctly and now they don’t using an ‘i’ sound – which is wrong). Plus your former assistant is nobody when compared to Nikon’s CEO in Japan and I assure you, he’s pronouncing it with an E sound. If they don’t know how to pronounce their own product who does…?! American photographers living in Japan, pronounce it correctly for that matter. Dulcis in fundo (look it up), curiously enough in the US the world Nikkor (Nikon’s lenses) is pronounced correctly i.e. with an E sound. Regards, and don’t take it personally. Ciao

      4. Thanks iNtervengo for the background and pronunciation of ISO and Nikon. You’ve convinced me; I’ll implement your correction in my pronunciation. In the USA, colloquial not professional, I’ve always heard and so pronounced “NIKE-on”. When teaching north-Americans, I advise you to avoid “pronounce with an ‘E’ sound.” Instead say: “pronounce as a ‘short i’ rather than a ‘long i’ vowel sound.” So, correct is NICK-on, not: NECK-on or NIKE-on. (At 16:00 in this video “NICK-on” is how I hear Abbott’s pronunciation. In the USA the difference is subtly distinct between nick-on and neck-on, and quite distinct between nick-on and nike-on.) By the way, north-Americans pronounce via “VEE-ә” (long e vowel sound …as you say, this is the correct Latin pronunciation).

      5. In many instances, the US use correct spellings and names. This must be pointed out. Realize should be spelled with a ‘z’ for instance (realizzare in Italian which comes straight from Latin – we use 2 for that matter but the Brits seem preferring an ‘s’ every now and then). Indeed Via is pronounced correctly in the US but not in the UK. Mind you that the UK is undergoing a huge transformation with the English language as is being contaminated by different accents now (like the one where the ‘T’ have gone suddenly missing to name one). Soccer was the original British word which the US still uses and the UK has dropped in favour of Football (which in the US is still what it used to be in the UK before). As you can see, there’s a lot out there that undergo distortion unfortunately (as I cannot find a better word to describe this). Interesting enough in the US the word Nikkor is often pronounced correctly (with an E sound as it should be). Talking about Nikon, I hope they dig themselves out of the hole they’re in at the moment as this is an historic brand, one I would hate seeing going away. Take care.

  12. I doesn’t matter what some people say about the pronunciation of certain words. These words are foreign expressions anyway and there is no way and possibility that all people from all nations and language circles pronounce these particular words in an exactly the same way. If some people say “Nike-on” it’s just fine. Nobody should care. Germans don’t say “ISO” as “ee-soh” or “eye-soh” but as “ee-zoh”. Polish people say “ee-so” (no “oh”). It’s just normal. Even the vowels will be ALWAYS pronounced in a different way because different language work with sounds in a variety of ways. That’s why I believe that talking about the right pronunciation generally makes no sense on an international forum or even when it comes to pointing out to N Americans exclusively by their fellow people and saying they’re wrong about how they speak. Greetings from a Pole living in Germany.

    1. Hello, Dan. I believe this question was answered at the beginning of this article. “Section 1 – What exactly is ISO? The ISO (International Standards Organization) determines the sensitivity of the sensor in your camera which, in turn, affects the exposure of your photos.” Is this what you were looking for?

      1. ISO in photography is not International Standards Organization.
        ISO in photography is A system for quantifying the sensitivity (“speed”) of a photographic emulsion, or a solid-state digital-camera’s image sensor, to visible light. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_abbreviations_in_photography
        You are not aware for what stands ISO and you do not explain what is ISO, you just say that ISO can have different values, that is not an explanation.
        So again plain non expert.

      2. Hi, Dan. The full description of ISO on Wikipedia as you cited, states: “A system for quantifying the sensitivity (“speed”) of a photographic emulsion, or a solid-state digital-camera’s image sensor, to visible light. Normally followed by a numerical value, e.g.: ISO 100 or ISO 64/19°. Developed from the ASA and the DIN systems by the International Organization for Standardization.” ISO was developed from systems created by the International Organization for Standardization.
        If you read this definition and the definition provided in our article they are the same thing essentially. Our article is in layman’s terms so it can be easily understood. Our word order for the International Organization for Standardization is incorrect in the article but it is not so misconstrued that it is indecipherable. We not only explain what ISO is but, there are even explanations for when each value is ideal.

      3. No, of course not.
        Let simple say ISO is not quite a value, even in the digital word.
        ISO is a spectrum, on film ranging from -2 to +3 exposure value, on digital much more less close to +/- 2/3 EV.
        If we are not speaking of forensic photography it matters to understand exposure, where to place the spectrum regarding the actual lighting situation.
        But here we are at the „expert photographer„ and the very basic information is missing.
        Someone believe that what is stated here is truth and go on, and chimp after every photo.

  13. I thought this explanation was great. Who cares who you pronounce ISO or Nikon?? Toe-may-toe/Toe- mah-toe guys. Maybe you need another hobby besides photography & reading blogs to correct people. For those of us who DGAF about pronunciations and just want to take better pictures, very simple and educational. Thanks!!

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['rmockx.RealPlayer G2 Control', 'rmocx.RealPlayer G2 Control.1', 'RealPlayer.RealPlayer(tm) ActiveX Control (32-bit)', 'RealVideo.RealVideo(tm) ActiveX Control (32-bit)', 'RealPlayer']
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