Shutter speed is the most obvious contributing factor to an exposure. It has one of the biggest effects on your photos.
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What Is Shutter Speed?
The shutter speed is the exact time of exposure: the time that your camera records an image for.
In all cameras, there is a shutter mechanism that determines when light hits the sensor.
When we take an image, it opens up for a given amount of time, which is the shutter speed. The longer it’s open, the more light getting recorded, resulting in a brighter image.
Depending on the shutter speed, you’ll encounter either the freezing or the blurring of moving elements in your shot. So, it’s crucial that you understand how it works.
Understanding Camera Shake and Motion Blur
The thing we most commonly associate with shutter speed is camera shake. The longer the shutter is open, the more chance your hands’ vibration has to cause visible blurring on the shot.
As a general rule of thumb, a shutter speed value under your lenses’ focal length with cause camera shake. For example, a 300mm lens (without image stabilisation) will need a minimum of 1/320th. Similarly, a 50mm lens will need anything above 1/50th of a second.
As a side note, it’s important for you to understand that these are effective values. If you’re using a camera that doesn’t have a full-frame sensor (either smaller or larger), you need to take its crop factor into account.
So, if you’re using a 50mm lens on a 1.5x crop camera (such as a Canon 80D), it will provide you with a field of view of a 75mm lens. you’re better off using shutter speeds faster than 1/80th.
Using shutter speeds only slightly faster than recommended might result in some blur. Your hands might be shakier than the average – the only way to know this is experimenting.
Anything slower than this recommended value will most likely require a tripod. Or, image stabilisation, which most telephoto lenses have built-in. It’s increasingly wide-spread in standard and wide-angle lenses as well, especially in zooms.
More often than not you’ll want to take your photo at a comfortably shorter speed, such as 1/500th of a second (in case of a standard lens). This will also help freeze the movement of your subject. But, this largely depends on the speed of your subject and how close you are to it.
In most situations, slow shutter speed results in blurred images.
Similarly to ISO and aperture in photography, we use stops to indicate changes in shutter speed. But it’s a lot easier to wrap your head around than in the case of f-stops in the aperture.
A stop up in shutter speed (e.g. from 1/100 to 1/50) is doubling the amount of light, and a step down (from 1/50 to 1/100) is halving the amount of light.
Freezing a Subject With High Shutter Speed
Freezing your subject requires a fast shutter speed. It occurs when you take a photo at such a high shutter speed (usually 1/500 and above) that there’s no motion blur. I don’t like shooting at these speeds as the images produced tend to appear flat.
The faster the subject is moving relative to the frame, the faster the shutter speed you need. For example, a fighter jet up close will require a 1/2000th of a second or higher. A person riding a bike might only need 1/500th of a second.
When shooting a fast-moving object, I like to include a small amount of motion. Otherwise, it may as well have been sitting still.
Choosing the Right Shutter Speed for the Situation
You will notice that there are third stops between these speed on cameras, but we’d be here all day if I went through them all. They’re there to allow precise adjustments, but don’t make a fundamental difference. Hence, I’m only listing full stops.
A lot of the speeds listed below are dependant on how close the subject is to you, so bear that in mind. Also, this doesn’t really take exposure into consideration. This is purely about what you capture at these speeds.
1/4000 of a Second – Freezing really fast-moving objects. Think of the sorts of things you may capture is a high-speed camera: a baseball pitch, a balloon pop, that sort of thing.
1/2000 of a Second – Freezing the flight of birds. They move their wings really fast so you have to crank up the shutter speed really high.
1/1000 of a Second – Freezing very fast-moving objects, such as moving vehicles.
1/500 of a Second – This is where you will start to freeze fast-moving people, such as runners and cyclists.
1/250 of a Second – A great speed for freezing your still subject, without having to think too much about focal length and how that affects the motion blur. Great for portrait photography.
1/125 of a Second – You won’t typically want to go much slower than this if you’re shooting handheld; otherwise, you will likely capture motion blur from your hands. This is also where you will start to be able to use your shutter speed for panning.
1/60 of a Second – Again, this is a great speed for panning photography and handheld photography in low light.
1/30 of a Second – This is about as slow as you will want to go while capturing panning photography, as much slower and your photo will become too much of a blur.
1/15 of a Second – You can mount your camera on a tripod at this speed and capture sight movement from moving objects. Think people walking, cars moving in traffic, water blurring slightly.
1/8 of a Second – Capturing motion blur in water.
1/4 of a Second – Blurred movement in a scene. Not so little that it appears accidental, but not so much that it’s hard to tell what’s going on.
1/2 of a Second – More motion blur, only much stronger than before. Think of water starting to appear like mist.
1 Second – Twilight photography. The sun may not be completely gone, but there’s not enough light to make up the exposure you’re looking for. You may incorporate a flash, and you’re more than likely using a tripod.
More than 1 Second – This is where night photography starts to come into play. You can play with different speeds and capture awesome nighttime photos.
Bulb Mode – This is used for exposures longer than 30 seconds, where you can manually control the exposure time with the shutter release. This is used for astrophotography where you may want to capture some stars. You may also use this mode for slow sync flash where you want to have immediate control of the shutter speed.
Creative Uses for Different Shutter Speeds
Create a Point of Interest With Creative Blur
To create creative blur, you will need a few items. You need a remote trigger and a tripod to hold the camera steady. Then you can play around with the shutter speed settings.
This can create interesting images in which the blur is the main point of interest. For inspiration, try a fairground carousel.
Try Panning to Emphasise a Moving Subject
Panning is where you move your camera to complement a moving subject. It results in an image where the background is blurred but the subject is sharp.
This shot was taken from a sidewalk, panning the camera while using a slow shutter speed. The sense of movement is obvious because of this technique.
Controlling your shutter speed is a great way to show movement in a still scene. You can create strong motion linear blur by using relatively slow shutter speed and panning the camera to follow a subject.
If you are looking to add blur into your image, there are many ways to do so.
Telephoto lenses need a faster shutter speed to capture an image without blur. These lenses pick up and magnify even the slightest movement of the camera. A wide-angle lens requires a slower shutter speed as the details in the image are a lot smaller.
This means you can create a blurred image easier with a longer focal length lens.
To set up your camera for panning, we recommend to set it to Tv (Canon) or S (Nikon, Sony). Aperture doesn’t really matter here – why not let your camera decide on it?
Set a shutter speed a few stops below the value recommended by the reciprocal rule. In the case of a 200mm lens, 1/40th-1/80th is generally good.
Then set drive mode to fast continuous. You’re very unlikely to get a great shot if you only have one frame. You’ll need to grab at least a few of them.
Make sure to follow the line of movement of your subject when shooting. The goal is to make it remain steady in the frame and let everything else move.
Some telephoto lenses have complex stabilisation systems allowing for one-axis stabilisation. If you switch this mode on, your lens will only stabilise in the vertical axis. It won’t compensate for movement on the horizontal axis. This makes panning a lot easier and more effective.
Add a Creative Blur With Flash
Adding flash to a photo with blur will freeze motion in the frame.
Choose a longer shutter speed. Start with around 1/40, and experiment. Your flash will still only light your subjects momentarily, creating a sharp outline.
In the remaining time of exposure, you can then move the camera around to capture the light and blur for artistic effect. This will create a ghosting effect.
Experiment With Light Painting
For light painting, all you need is a long exposure and a light source. The photo below was taken on a 30-second shutter, which is a slow shutter speed setting.
During the exposure, I set off flashes of light onto the beach huts.
This fills in the light exactly where you want it and is great for shooting at night.
Create Fun Light Graffiti
Use Long Exposures for Low Light Situations
Because this photo was taken at night, I used a slower shutter speed than usual photography to gain an even exposure.
This next photo requires a long shutter speed but for a different reason. The creator of this image had to wait for a passing car to come into the frame, and the timing can be very difficult.
It can take some time to figure out the exact settings because only a specific shutter speed will make the blur precisely as long in the image as you wish.
At this point, you should be familiar with everything when it comes to setting your shutter speed.
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