Environmental portrait photography has nothing to do with climate change.
It is different than environmental photography or environmentalist pictures. Read on to find out what it is, and how to capture some stunning images.
What Is an Environmental Portrait?
Environmental portrait photography is making an illustration of a person in their environment. It’s a portrait in which the person can be connected to the location they are in.
Good environmental portraits will tell a strong story of their subject. Their immediate natural surroundings will give the viewer insight. Into who the person is, what they do and where they are.
Locations that best help tell a person’s story might be:
- Their home
- Their workplace
- A favourite coffee shop or bar
- Where they play sports
- At their church or temple
The location and person should tie together in a meaningful way. This will come from your setup, candid shots and professional photographer behaviour.
How to Take Advantage of Location
This photo of a senior man does not tell the viewer much. We can see he is outdoors on a sunny day and he’s sitting in the shade. You might be able to see that he is Asian and could presume the climate is hot.
But visual clues giving any more detail are lacking, making this more of a street portrait. This is where environmental portrait photography come in. It gives you a lot of information about the person from the scene.
All visual elements build up a good illustration of the subject. You find out much more about him from the second photo than if you had only seen the first photo.
Environmental portraits put the subjects in context with their surroundings. Including the best visual elements around them to tell some of the story of who they are.
Some photographic techniques work better than others for making environmental portraits. Here are my top tips for how to create engaging portraits of people in their natural setting.
Everyday environments yield great results. You only need to watch the people go about their daily life. They become usual from visiting the same location many times.
10. Research the People and Location
Knowing who you are photographing is key. It will help you create more compelling portraits of them. If you know something about the person’s life story, you will add meaning to your portraits.
Find out about their location and what’s significant about it. Sometimes this will be very obvious, other times it will not. It pays to ask because you might not see something that could be vital in telling your subject’s story.
If you know your subject well the choice of location should be more obvious. For environmental portraiture works when we can relate the subject to their surroundings.
I only understood the significance of the stacked bricks with flags and plastic baskets after asking about them. The area is a valley which becomes flooded in the wet season because of a hydro dam.
Before the dam, there was a temple at this site. The local people reconstruct a physical representation of this holy site each dry season. Bricks gather and stack up. Flags fly.
Knowing this, my portrait helps to tell her story. Having some words accompanying the photo gives the viewer a clearer understanding.
Without some explanation, the elements included may seem irrelevant. This is typical in editorial photography or portraiture.
9. Tell Their Story – Answer People’s Questions With Your Photos
You want to answer questions viewers of the photo may have.
- Who is this person?
- What do they do?
- Where do they live?
When you are setting up to make an environmental portrait, look around. Look at the background . Check for elements that will support your subject’s story and answer question about them.
This can be challenging. But do your best to build up an informative illustration of your subject.
8. Put Yourself in Their World
Sit where they are sitting. Stand where they are standing. See the world from their perspective. Be the environmental portrait photographer that looks beyond the composition.
Looking at the setting the way they see it may give you some more clues on who they are and how best to photograph them. Don’t be afraid and direct your subject.
We often become so familiar with our surroundings we take things for granted. Your subject may not be telling you all the significant details. This will not enable you to take their portrait as best as you can.
By putting yourself in their shoes, so to speak, you are trying to see their world how they see it. You will start to take better environmental portrait photography
You may find other interesting elements to include in your environmental portraiture. These aren’t studio portraits, and neither are they fine art images. Other elements make the portrait environmental.
7. Engage With Your Subject
Talk to your subject. Sometimes we are in the markets with our photography workshop customers. I always encourage them to engage.
Connecting well with a person you are making a portrait of will help you. You’ll create a more dynamic illustration of them.
Most often I will ask permission to take a person’s photograph. Here in Thailand, this can be as simple as a smile and a gesture at my camera. If I get a smile and nod in reply I know it’s okay to continue.
At first, I make a few photos without any conversation. This is great for more pleasant interactions and better environmental portraiture.
When I am happy with my initial photos I will show them the back of my camera. People love seeing their pictures. This usually leads to conversation. And, when the situation is right, some more photographs.
Now that I have engaged my subject and they have seen some results of how they look, the dynamic has changed. As I continue making their portraits I am able to make a very different series of environmental photographs.
Approaching strangers is difficult for many photographers. Be attentive and pick people you think may enjoy a photograph. You will have to leave your comfort zone for the best environmental portraiture.
Chat with them a little. Or, if you don’t speak the same language, even non-verbal communication will help. This is the way for better environmental portraits.
6. Be Friendly and Relaxed
Don’t focus on yourself. Your subject will reflect you like a mirror. If you are nervous this will show in your subject. If you are uncomfortable, they will be uncomfortable.
The more you relax and enjoy the process, the more your likely it is your subject will relax too.
Be mindful to create a positive vibe. Smile, and chat if you need to stimulate the mood.
5. Have Your Camera Settings Ready
Prepare your camera’s settings before you engage your subject. Thinking about what exposure settings will distract you once you approach your subject.
Stop and think about it and have your camera ready. Have the right lens on. Don’t use a tele lens unless you have loads of space, (and even then I would not recommend it).
Don’t use a super wide lens, unless you want to distort your subject. A mid-range lens, between a 35mm and 70mm, (on a full frame or equivalent,) is a good choice.
I like to be at a comfortable distance when I am making environmental portraits. If I am too far back with a long lens, it makes it more difficult to connect with my subject.
Being farther away may mean you have to talk louder. This may break the mood if you are trying for an intimate portrait.
The farther away you are, the more difficult it can be to hold your subject’s attention. This is particularly so when there are other people around.
Depending on the style of portrait you want, holding their attention may not be important.
If they are doing something and you want to capture the action, a wider lens is best. Being closer to your subject will bring a more intimate feel to your environmental portraits.
If you are using a longer lens, especially in low light, you may struggle to get a narrow enough aperture. Using a wide aperture is going to give you a limited depth of field.
You may not have enough in focus to show what is in the background. You are less likely to encounter this problem using a wider lens.
Try out smaller apertures on your Nikon DSLR. Or try a shallow depth of field using your mirrorless camera.
The Lens I Use
My preferred lens for making environmental portraits is my 35mm f1.4, which I use on a full frame body. This lens gives me the same view we see with our eyes.
It also allows me to be close to my subject and still include enough background. It also gives me a good control over my depth of field.
4. Fill the Frame
This is the best compositional advice I have ever received. Filling the frame with what is relevant to your photo is far more important than trying to follow a bunch of rules.
You can attempt to enhance your compositions with leading lines. Lovely framing or making sure your horizon is straight are also powerful.
None of these methods are significant if your frame is lacking essential elements. You need to concentrate on the story or if there are distractions in it. Photography it a certain way, then try alternatives.
You want to make sure that what is in your frame supports the story you are telling. This is the difference between a simple portrait and environmental portraiture.
Look at everything you can see in the background. Ask yourself if it is relevant and related to the person you are making a portrait of. If it’s not, do something about it.
You can use various techniques to make sure your background helps your picture. Some of these are:
- Move your point of view;
- Have your subject move;
- Move the distracting element from the background.
3. Try a Deep Depth of Field
A deep depth of field, where a lot of the image is in focus, is normal with environmental portraits.
It is necessary to show what is surrounding your subject. Having a narrow aperture setting, (a higher f-stop number,) means a considerable amount of your composition will show the detail.
This can be problematic. With so much in sharp focus the main subject may become lost or blend in too much with the background.
Careful placement of your subject in the frame makes for strong, environmental portraiture.
I like to use a medium aperture setting. I use this along with the subject at an appropriate distance from my lens and from the background. Naturally I will focus on the eyes of my subject.
Controlling the aperture and relative distances gives me control of how sharp or how blurred my background is.
In my composition of this Karen lady cooking, her environment is clear, but it is not all in sharp focus. I made this portrait with my 35mm lens set at f 2.8.
I did not want to have the background in sharp focus because it was quite cluttered. Enough of her cooking implements close to her clearly show her environment well.
She is far enough away from the background for it to be sufficiently blurred and not be distracting.
If I had chosen a narrow aperture, say f8, the background would be sharp and become a distraction. If I had chosen a wider aperture, say f1.4, or moved closer to her, other elements in the composition would be unclear.
It is important to find a balance of how much is in focus. Everything does not need to be sharp in an environmental portrait for it to be an effective part of the composition.
2. Use Props (If They Help Tell the Story)
Sometimes you may have the opportunity to control what is in your portrait. Look around for something the person can hold or otherwise interact with that is meaningful to their story.
If you’re working with a dull background, introducing a prop can make a big difference. Props are a great way to add more culture, colour, or texture into am environmental portraiture.
The first few times I met this Lahu man. I did not know he enjoyed smoking tobacco in a bamboo water pipe. He’s a real character and loves being photographed.
He makes a becoming subject on his own, but the inclusion of his pipe makes for much more interesting environmental photographs.
Seeing him smoking in front of his home gives so much more story to him than this portrait of him I made with my natural light outdoor studio. We have a great article on environmental portrait lighting you can check out here.
1. Post-Process to Enhance
In some circumstances, you will not have any control over your subject and background. At times like this keep in mind how you might improve your environmental portrait during the post processing stage.
Removing distracting objects by cloning them out will often make the portrait stronger. If there is something behind you subject that you cannot move, consider removing it in Photoshop.
Often I will use the burn tool or a similar technique to darken the background. Done correctly, the subjects’ colours, exposure and contrast will enhance. The viewer’s attention will be drawn more to them.
Creating a vignette is also a popular method to help bring more attention to the subject. This involves darkening the edges of the frame so the viewer’s eye moves to your subject.
Be careful not to overdo this technique as you will not want to loose detail relevant to the story you are telling.
A Few Extra Tips
It is not necessary for your subject to take up most of the frame. In my environmental portrait of the tricycle taxi rider (above) he is small in the frame. Yet, he remains the main focus.
Some stories gain strength with a little mystery. You do not need to show every detail blatantly. Leaving a little to the imagination can mean your portrait photo will hold a viewer’s attention longer.
In situations where you photograph a person in their workplace, think about making different environmental portraits. One with them posed and looking at the camera.
The other with them absorbed in what they do.
Generally, you will not want to have the background complement your main subject. Creating a balance in your composition where the main feature of your environmental portrait is the subject is what you want to aim for.
The subject is the most important in environmental portraits. Concentrating on the story and your subject, not too much on your camera equipment, will help you produce more dynamic photographs.