Bokeh refers to a soft out-of-focus background that you get when shooting a subject. The key to achieving it is using a fast lens at its widest aperture.
‘Bokeh’ is easily recognisable in a photo. The word itself comes from the Japanese word for ‘blur’.
You can even create a blurred background in Photoshop and Lightroom, as you can see in our article here.
Or, if you are feeling up for a little DIY, you can make your own bokeh filters very cheaply. All the information is in this article.
But if you’re interested in creating ‘bokeh’ in-camera, keep reading.
Why Is Aperture Important?
Bokeh is almost entirely down to the lens you use. It is the lens that determines blur. By manipulating aperture, you get a focal distance and a focal point.
That’s why the widest aperture of your lens is important. Aperture ranges from f/2.8 at its widest, all the way up to f/22 at its deepest.
If we use an aperture of f/2.8, we get a very shallow depth of field. The depth of field is how much of our scene or subject is in focus. F/22 would be the opposite, placing everything in focus.
The wider the aperture, the more blur will appear in your image.
Why Is Distance Important?
Aperture is the most important area when it comes to bokeh, followed by depth of field or how much of your scene is in focus. Distance is yet another important area in blurring parts of your photograph.
The distances relate to the camera and the subject as opposed to the subject and the background. You can achieve a large amount of blur in a photograph using f/2.8, even if you are far from your subject. This is because the focal distance is very small.
On the flip side, if you place yourself very close to a subject while using a medium aperture, such as f/8, the background will come out blurred. This is due to the background being much farther away from the subject than the camera is.
This is a great tip to know if your lens only drops down to f/5.6, as many zoom lenses do.
Distance Vs. Aperture
There is a way around fixing the photo above, and this is where it pays to have a better quality lens. By stopping down your lens to a narrow aperture, the bokeh effect becomes much more appealing.
You can work out more of the shape, without losing too much of the effect.
Here, we used an aperture of f/8. Finding a bokeh which suits your photo is all about finding a balance between aperture an distance.
Why Is Lens Quality Important?
The quality of your lens will always effect the quality of your aperture. This is purely because of the number of blades that are used to produce an aperture. Higher quality lens have more blades, so they can better reproduce a circle shape.
For example, my Canon L lenses each have 8 blades, whereas my kit lens and 50mm f/1.8 only have 5. Here’s what these blades look like inside a lens.
It’s worth noting that the narrow the aperture becomes, the less obvious this comparison becomes.
Why Is Lighting Important
Of course, one of the most important parts of producing beautiful bokeh, is how your photo is lit.
If you’re in controlled conditions where you can adjust your light, and want to experiment, then you may find that opening your aperture up all the way works best.
Remember, this is going to have the smoothest results, and produce the largest bokeh.
Or perhaps the light is breaking through some leaves of a tree in the background, and you want to capture this with a smooth blur.
The light source doesn’t have to come from behind the subject like in the photo above, it can just be incidental light creeping through a well lit scene, like below. It’s your job to spot it, and use it to your advantage
How to Create the Bokeh Effect in 3 Easy Steps
1. Find Your Image
First of all, you need to find where you are going to take the image. What you need to be aware of is light, the size of the area, and what the background is going to look like.
Here, we found a field for the experiment.
2. Find Your Subject
We wanted to keep the theme as natural as possible, so we went with a leaf. Mixed with the field, it will provide a nice contrast in terms of shape and complimentary colours.
3. Set Your Camera to Aperture Priority
Setting your camera to Aperture Priority will make it easier to change just the aperture. If the area is well lit, choose ISO 100. At the height of day, a f/2.8 at ISO 100 will give you around 1/1000 of a second, if not more.
The benefit of aperture priority is if you feel f/2.8 is too shallow, and want to use f/8, then the camera will work out the corresponding shift for you.
As you move the aperture up 3 stops, the shutter speed will drop by the equal amount.
Take the picture. As you can see, the camera is close to the subject, and the distance from the subject to the horizon is much farther. This accentuates the blur, creating more of the bokeh effect.
The image and bokeh effect are enhanced by the dew on the blades of grass. It allows the light to become more prominent.
And that’s it. You can take beautiful bokeh photographs in-camera using a wide aperture. It is that simple. You are only held back by your imagination.
But there are a few circumstances where your bokeh might not go as envisioned. Let’s visit a few common problems.
My Background Is not as Blurry as I Had Hoped
This may be down to your aperture not being wide enough. Try shooting at f/2.8 or lower. If you find that your camera lens doesn’t drop down so far, follow these steps.
- Set the lens to the widest aperture possible (smallest number).
- Bring the camera closer to the subject.
- Close that gap and re-shoot.
You should find it much better. If not, get closer to the subject in capturing that shallow depth-of-field.
My Images Are Too Dark
If you are using aperture priority, your settings should change according to your appointed f/stop. If you still have problems, increase your ISO from 100 to 200, and that should fix things.
Here, you are putting one stop of light into the image, giving your f/stop and shutter speed more room to play with.
Blinking Lights in the Background
You may find that some background lights will disappear and magically reappear within your photographs. Don’t be alarmed, it hasn’t really got much to do with you.
Electrical lights such as Christmas fairy lights may not show up on your photograph at all. This is due to the fact that the lights aren’t exactly constant. They strobe.
They disappear in your image because your image isn’t synced with them. Try using a shutter speed slower than 1/60th of a second.
This is one of my favourite photos of my model Keira, with a local pier in the background. This is a really simple example of bokeh, as the lighting is minimal.
I had a fill light coming from a beauty dish to the right in this photo. My exposure set to f/1.4 for the bokeh and the shutter speed set to 1/6 to expose for the background. The aperture was very wide, and the lights were very far away.
As they were also very small, so that’s why they’re not overpowering the photos. The reflections on the left side of the photo contain multiple rings of light, which has turned this small use of bokeh much more interesting background.
Remember, there’s more to the photo than just the subject. This is why I hate to see photos being taken on a backdrop. Just stop being lazy and try harder.
The idea of this next photo was to have the background out of focus and very blurry. To do so, I widened the aperture as wide as it would go. I kept the M&M’s in the background quite close so you could still make some detail in the changes of colour.
The round shape of the sweets lends itself quite nicely to the shape of the bokeh, with a small amount of overlap changing the colour in places. Notice how the blue and red have merged in places to turn purple.
This final photo is here for a completely different reason, and that’s because it was shot during the golden hour.
This is when the sun is very low in the sky, so there are more shadows that you can work with. This constant change between light and dark produced some nice contrast for the lighter parts of the photo to shine through with the bokeh.
I often find that working with lights at night produces the coolest effects. I would suggest going out in during the golden hour, and working into the evening to capture lights in the distance.
This works really well in a city where there’s lots of cars and shop/street lights.
Get out there and try it for yourself.
A note from Josh, ExpertPhotography's Photographer-In-Chief:
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